Reversible Nematostatic Effect of Peganum harmala L. (Nitrariaceae) on Meloidogyne javanica
Effect of Syrian Rue on Root-Knot Nematodes
Meloidogyne javanica is considered as the most damaging nematode of vegetables in Morocco. Eco-friendly bionematicides are urgently required for its control. In vitro experiments were carried out to assess the direct effect of bioproducts of P. harmala against M. javanica. The bioassay showed extracts to be nematotoxic. Aqueous extracts of P. harmala exhibited reversible nematostatic activity. The estimated ID50 of the most active product in methanolic extracts was 368 ppm. HPLC-MS of the methanolic extract revealed that total content of major alkaloids of P. harmala was approximately 12.162±0.637mg/g. Harmine (8.514±0.521 mg/g) is the dominant alkaloid. In conclusion, P. harmala has a reversible nematostatic activity on second stage juveniles of M. javanica. The effect of P. harmala is due to its possession of a high content of β-carboline alkaloids, which warrant further experimentation. Bioproducts from P. harmala should be exploited through formulations for management of the root knot nematode.
KEYWORDS: Peganum harmala, Phytonematodes, in vitro, nematicide, alkaloids.